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Through Dana's parent-training workshops, caregivers are taught to recognize the central role that routine plays in speech-pattern modification.

Language Milestones

By 2 years, a child should:

Receptive (Understanding) Expressive
  • Understand more than s/he can say
  • Correctly answer "Yes/No" Questions
  • Point at body parts and familiar objects
  • Respond to pictures of familiar people and objects
  • Have a vocabulary of about 200-300 words
  • Start to use 2- and 3- word phrases
  • Speak in order to request (e.g., "I want milk"), command others ("Come here"), ask questions ("What's that?"), and express feelings, interests, and desires ("I see cat")
  • Show plurals (shoes), possessive -'s (John's hat), and early describing words (hot, big)
  • Use pronouns: you me, my, mine

By 3 years, a child should:

Receptive (Understanding) Expressive
  • Put objects in, on, under when asked
  • Understand one versus all
  • Correctly answer "Where", "What", and "Who" questions
  • Follow two-step directions (e.g., Get your shoes and bring them to me)
  • Have a vocabulary of about 900-1000 words
  • Use 3+ words in a sentence
  • Mark past tense –ed, even if it is mis-used (walked, gived)
  • Use even more pronouns (they, he, she)
  • Have an understandable conversation with an adult
  • Ask "Who", "What", "Where" and "Why"

By 4 years, a child should:

Receptive (Understanding) Expressive
  • Follow 3-step directions (Get your shoes, put them on, and wait by the door)
  • Understand and remember details from stories
  • Have a vocabulary of over 1500 words
  • Use 4+ words in a sentence
  • Use more complex sentences (e.g., "Today I saw a noisy bird")
  • Tell you how they feel ("I'm hungry")

Sound Development in English

Children learn to say, or acquire, sounds at different ages, generally following a set pattern. Most children have acquired all their sounds by Grade 1.

By the time a child finishes Nursery, he/ she should be able to clearly say:

P, m, h, n, w, b, k, g, d, t

As well as approximations of longer sounds (s, z, sh, f, v)

By the end of Junior Kindergarten, he/ she should be able to clearly say:

f, v, y (as in “yes”), and consonant blends (spoon, stop)

By the end of Senior Kindergarten, he/ she should be starting to clearly say:

S, z, r, l, sh, ch, j (as in “juice”), th, zh (as in “measure”)

• Although it is important to remember that some children acquire sounds earlier than others, a referral for a speech assessment is recommended if a child has not acquired their sounds at the appropriate ages.
• If a child cannot say vowels correctly or consistently, a speec pathology assessment is strongly recommended.
• When a child says a sound correctly sometimes, but not all the time, it usually means that he/ she is in the process of acquiring that sound.

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Dana Prutschi
Speech-Language Pathologist
146 Markwood Lane
Thornhill, ON L4J 7K6

Tel: 905-763-9867
Fax: 905-763-6516

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